METALLIC VERSUS NON-METALLIC BIOMATERIALS INVOLVED ORAL IMPLANTOLOGY
Sergiu Focșăneanu, Norina Consuela Forna
Biocompatible are those materials where the vital environment reactions which they are introduced to are so insignificant that they do not adversely affect each other. The implant must not induce bone biosynthesis by its corrosion, biodegradation on the surface, secondary changes in the body, metallosis or biological instability. The most common materials used as a bone substitute are ceramic materials, together with treated bovine bone, synthetic ceramic of calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate TCP) and calcium carbonate (coraline).Aim :This study individualizes the choice of metallic versus non-metallic biomaterials in accordance with the various morpho-functional features of clinical cases for implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.Material and methodA statistical evaluation was made, viewing the existing data, on a number of 32 specialist articles published between 2011-2017 in recognized medical databases, mainly PubMed.Results and discussionsThe action mechanism of the various types of ceramics involved in oral implantology is based on osteoconduction. These materials are used to reconstruct bone defects and augment resorbed alveolar ridges. They have good compressive strength and low torsional resistance, similar to the natural bone. Although biological responses differ, all biochemicals are indicated for augmentation. In cases of minor bone resorption, obtaining a suitable bone bed is achieved mainly with non-membrane allogeneic materials.Conclusions :From the analyzed articles, it is conclusive that bone regeneration biomaterials provide very good results in maintaining a bone size that can withstand demands, also providing a high percentage of vitality, safety and lack of complications.
Key words: implantology, biomaterials, biocompatibility, osteoconduction,biodegradation