Romanian Journal of Medical and Dental Education Volum 13 Issue 1, 2024 NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF GEOGRAPHIC TONGUE


Stefan Vasile Toader, Mihaela Paula Toader, Cristina Popa, Ana Maria Sciuca, Bianca Andreea Onofrei,  Oana Mihaela Condurache Hritcu


Geographic Tongue (GT), also known as benign migratory glossitis, is a benign inflammatory condition characterised by irregular, smooth, red patches on the tongue surface, often with a white or light-coloured border. Despite being a common oral condition, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. This review aims to shed light on the latest insights into the pathophysiology of GT, exploring its etiological factors, immunological aspects, and potential genetic predispositions. We discuss the role of environmental factors, such as stress and dietary habits, and delve into the immunopathological mechanisms that may contribute to the manifestation of GT. The review also examines the possible genetic and epigenetic factors involved in GT and their interaction with environmental triggers. Recent advancements in molecular biology and genetics offer new perspectives in understanding the complex nature of GT, paving the way for improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This review concludes with a discussion on the potential future directions in GT research, focusing on the need for larger epidemiological studies and the exploration of novel therapeutic targets.

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