Mihaela Maris, Liliana Pasarin, Maria-Alexandra Martu, Georgeta Laza, George-Alexandru Maftei, Irina–Georgeta Sufaru, Ruxandra Stan, Silvia Martu, Ionut Luchian
Oral and periodontal health impact systemic health, and vice versa. Special at-risk populations bring to bear this bidirectional relationship between oral and systemic health. Although bidirectional relationships are discussed, the potential for multiple comorbidities, relationships, and connections (multimodal relationships) also exists.
Periodontal disease has been associated with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, eating disorders, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease, rheumatoid arthritis,adverse pregnancy outcomes, and cancer.
Proposed mechanisms that mediate this connection between oral and systemic health in a susceptible host include predisposing and precipitating factors, such as genetic factors (gene polymorphisms), environmental factors (stress,habits—such as smoking and high-fat diets/consumption of highly processed foods), medications, microbial dysbiosis and bacteremias/ viremias, and an altered host immune response.
These associations exist within a framework of bacteremias/viremias/microbemias, systemic inflammation, and/or disturbances of the immune system in a susceptible host.