Ionuţ-Cătălin Botezatu, Maria-Alexandra Martu, Ioana-Andreea Sioustis, George Alexandru Maftei, Diana- Maria Anton, Oana Butnaru, Elena Carmen Cotrut
The specialized literature exhibits a multitude of studies that highlight the role of general factors, of some chronic systemic diseases, that can contribute to the appearance or modulation of periodontal disease, carious disease but also of other oral diseases. The oral cavity can be affected by diabetes, which can lead to several complications, including tooth decay, periodontal disease, disorders of the oral mucosa and dysfunction of saliva, which have a significant effect on the quality of life of diabetic patients. The importance of the host lies in the association of systemic diseases to the process of periodontal destruction of tissues in the oral cavity (periodontal tissues, dental tissues, tissues of the oral mucosa and salivary glands).
The biomolecular and biocellular mechanisms involved in the pathology of the oral cavity in case of systemic diseases involve the mechanisms of local and systemic inflammation governed by proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-18, IL-17, IL-1B, IL-8, TNF- alpha and prostaglandins E2-PGE2, protein-2 inhibitory macrophages, MCP-1, interferon gamma, adipokines more common in diabetes. Inflammatory-mediated cytokines and proteins are practical markers of increased risk of cardiovascular disease, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor – alpha (TNF-α), fibrinogen.