Cardas Adelina Ioana, Stratan Ion, Moraru Daliana, Chikh al Sagha Sama, Nadejde Bogdan, Tibeica Andreea, Tibeica Silviu Catalin,Crețu Cosmin,Curcă Florin Răzvan, Agop-Forna Doriana, Norina Forna
Aim of the study: Alveolar bone loss, also known as alveolar ridge resorption, is a natural process that occurs after tooth extraction. It refers to the gradual loss of bone in the jawbone at the site where a tooth has been removed. The aim of this paper was to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the existing scientific literature on this topic.
Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the literature, including Medline, and PubMed the reviews, using a combination of terms and keywords.
Results: Eleven full text articles were reviewed. Alveolar ridge preservation (also known as socket preservation) is a dental procedure performed immediately after tooth extraction to minimize bone loss and maintain the shape and density of the alveolar ridge, which is the part of the jawbone that houses the tooth sockets. This procedure is particularly important when considering future dental implant placement or the preservation of the aesthetic appearance of the mouth. The success of this procedure can significantly impact the outcome of subsequent dental implant placement, ensuring stable and long-lasting results. There are many kinds of artificial bone grafts; bioceramics are the materials mainly used. Biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium (β-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate have been studied extensively, because they have inorganic constituents (Ca2+ and P3+) like those in human bones. In a recent study, HA/β-TCP + collagen demonstrated a statistically significant efficacy for maintaining the alveolar ridge height after three months, according to the periapical radiographs; a loss in height of 0.62 ± 1.46 mm, and a loss in width of 1.03 ± 2.43 mm indicated more of a reduction in soft tissue, which reflected the patients’ thin biotypes. Results of PRF application alone demonstrated that platelet concentrates help to reduce resorption of alveolar ridge. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), a synthetic allo- plastic material, has been used for bone regeneration in a variety of surgical procedures with satisfactory clinical and histologic results in both animal models10,11 and human trials.